- David Trimble Resigns (July 1): First minister of the Northern Ireland Assembly steps down as IRA continues to balk at disarmament.
- Russians Raid Two Chechen Villages (July 3 et seq.): Russian troops storm area after Chechen mine blasts kill four Russian soldiers.
- Iran's Reformers Tackle Economy (July 7): Newly elected leaders begin to set agenda to open up closed system that has faltered after 22 years of mismanagement and corruption.
- Pinochet Found Too Ill for Trial (July 9): Former Chilean dictator, 85, charged with covering up execution of political opponents after seizing power in 1973.
- Russian General Rebukes Troops (July 11): Commander in Chechnya says forces committed “widespread crimes” during two-day spree of terror against civilians.
- Russia and China Sign Friendship Treaty (July 16): Twenty-year agreement binds nations in their opposition to U.S.-proposed missile shield.
- India and Pakistan End Talks (July 17): Leaders fail in two-day summit to make progress on intractable conflict over Kashmir, which both nations claim, or on reducing risks of nuclear clash.
- Bush and Putin Agree on Arms Cuts (July 22): At Genoa meeting leaders agree to link talks on U.S. plans for antimissile system with cuts in both nuclear stockpiles.
- 178 Nations Reach Accord on Climate (July 23): World's leaders, without U.S., reach compromise on treaty that, for first time, would require industrialized nations to cut emissions of gases linked to global warming. Accord saves, though dilutes, 1997 Kyoto Protocol.
- Seven Killed in Macedonia Fighting (July 23): Dozens of villagers wounded as government forces battle Albanian rebels in western town of Tetovo.
- Chinese Free U.S.-Based Scholar (July 26): Release Gao Zhan, 39, who had been sentenced to ten years in prison on espionage charges.
- Israelis Kill Eight Palestinians (July 31): Army helicopters fire missiles into West Bank offices of militant Islamic group Hamas. Two small boys among victims.
- Bush Modifies Oil-Drilling Plan (July 2): Scales back proposal to let companies seek oil and natural gas in Gulf of Mexico. President retreats on issue his brother, Florida governor Jeb Bush, has opposed.
- Bush Nominates FBI Director (July 5): President selects Robert S. Mueller III, seasoned criminal prosecutor, to head troubled agency.
- Ex-FBI Agent Pleads Guilty to Espionage (July 6): Robert P. Hanssen admits passing highly sensitive U.S. secrets to Russians. He avoids death penalty.
- Campaign Bill Collapses in House (July 12): Finance reform measure dropped after bitter battle over procedure. Speaker J. Dennis Hastert says he has no plans to reintroduce measure any time soon. Each party blames the other for leaving bill's future in doubt.
- Equipment Missing Within FBI (July 17): Check finds loss or theft of 449 firearms and 184 laptop computers, including one containing classified data.
- Senate Votes to Extend Sanctions (July 25): Approves, 96–2, retention of penalties against Iran and Libya for an additional five years. Vote rejects Bush administration push to limit duration of sanctions to allow for diplomatic flexibility.
- Vieques Votes to End Bombing (July 29): In nonbinding referendum, residents of small Puerto Rican island demand by more than two to one that U.S. Navy end practice maneuvers.
- House Votes to Ban Human Cloning (July 31): Rejects cloning, 265–162, in bipartisan vote.
- Russian Airliner Crashes in Siberia (July 3): Death toll of 143 passengers and crew members reported.
- Artificial Heart Implanted in Human (July 3): Surgeons in Louisville, Ky., report success of first operation for self-contained organ. (July 4): Patient, man in 50s, reported to be recovering.
- Embryos Created to Harvest Cells (July 10): Scientists at Virginia clinic mix donated eggs and sperm to create embryonic stem cells. Move breaks medical taboo and stirs national debate.
- Four Firefighters Killed in Northwest (July 11): Fifth seriously injured. Group trapped when flames explode, engulfing 2,500 acres in Washington's North Cascades.
- Microsoft Makes Concession (July 12): Announces it will give personal computer makers more flexibility in which software and services they package on their machines.
- Prescription Drug Aid Proposed (July 12): Five major health-care companies agree to work with president to help Medicare beneficiaries receive discounts.
- World's Third Set of Septuplets Born (July 13): Five boys and two girls delivered at Georgetown University Hospital. Babies weigh 2 to 2.4 pounds. Mother reported to be in good condition.
- Beijing Awarded Olympics (July 13): Will host 2008 Summer Games. Despite criticism of China's human rights practices and its environmental record, the International Olympic Committee gave Beijing the simple majority it needed in the second round of voting.
- Boy Sentenced for Killing Teacher (July 27): Nathaniel Brazill, 14, denied chance of parole by Florida court.