president of the Philippines, resigned in January after the impeachment trial against him collapsed, causing massive street protests and members of his cabinet and senior military officials to withdraw their support. He was accused of receiving $80 million from a gambling-payoff scheme and several more million from tobacco tax kickbacks. Vice President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, a Harvard-trained economist and the daughter of former president Diosdado Macapagal, succeeded Estrada. In April, Estrada was jailed following his arrest on charges of corruption. His supporters rallied in the streets, demanding that Arroyo herself be removed from office. He was indicted in July on the capital charge of economic plunder.
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