Benjamin A. RubinBorn: 1917
Birthplace: New York City
Bifurcated vaccination needle—Until 1967 smallpox killed at least 2 million people annually. In 1980 the World Health Organization declared that smallpox had been defeated. Rubin ground down the eyelet of a sewing machine needle to invent the bifurcated vaccination needle which could easily be used by anyone under difficult conditions. (1992)
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