In the colonial era, the Cleveland area was known as the Connecticut Western Reserve, part of a land grant made to Connecticut by King Charles II in 1662. The city was founded in 1796 by Gen. Moses Cleaveland, who was the head surveyor of the Connecticut Land Company. This company had bought 3 million acres in what is now northern Ohio. A permanent settlement was founded in 1799, named after the general, and the spelling was shortened to Cleveland. The city was incorporated in 1836.
Cleveland's industrial growth was stimulated by the opening of the Ohio and Erie canals in 1832 and, later, by the advent of the Civil War, with the increasing demand for machinery, railroad equipment, ships, and other items. Today, the port of Cleveland is the largest overseas general cargo port on Lake Erie.
Greater Cleveland has long been famous as a durable goods manufacturing area. Following the national trend, however, Cleveland has been shifting to a more services-based economy. Greater Cleveland is a world corporate center for leading national and multinational companies in industries ranging from transportation, insurance, retailing, and utilities, to commercial banking and finance.
The city's cultural attractions include the Cleveland Museum of Art and the Cleveland Orchestra, one of the country's most highly acclaimed symphony orchestras. Jacobs Field, a major league ballpark, and the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame also draw thousands of visitors to the city.
City Council President Frank Jackson defeated incumbent Jane Campbell in the November 2005 mayoral election. He was re-elected in 2009.
See also Encyclopedia: Cleveland.
Selected famous natives and residents: