Rulers of France
1. For kings and emperors through the Second Empire, year of end of rule is also that of death, unless otherwise indicated.
2. Crowned Emperor of the West in 800. His brother, Carloman, ruled as king of the Eastern Franks from 768 until his death in 771.
3. Holy Roman Emperor, 814–840.
4. Holy Roman Emperor, 875–877 as Charles II.
5. Ruled jointly, 879–882.
6. Holy Roman Emperor, 881–887, as Charles III.
7. Died 888.
8. King, 893–898, in opposition to Eudes.
9. Died 929.
10. Not counted in regular line of kings of France by some authorities. Elected by nobles but killed in Battle of Soissons.
11. Sometimes called Robert I.
12. Posthumous son of Louis X; lived for only five days.
13. Executed 1793.
14. Titular king only. He died in prison according to official reports, but many pretenders appeared during the Bourbon restoration.
15. As first consul, Napoléon held the power of government. In 1804, he became emperor.
16. Abdicated first time, June 1814. Reentered Paris, March 1815, after escape from Elba; Louis XVIII fled to Ghent. Abdicated second time, June 1815. He named as his successor his son, Napoléon II, who was not acceptable to the Allies. He died 1821.
17. Died 1836.
18. Died 1850.
19. President; became emperor in 1852.
20. Died 1873.