More Facts & Figures
Languages: English 59.3%, French 23.2% (both official); other 17.5%
Ethnicity/race: British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, indigenous Indian and Inuit 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%
National Holiday: Canada Day, July 1
Religions: Roman Catholic 43%, Protestant 23% (including United Church 10%, Anglican 7%, Baptist 2%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4%, Muslim 2%, none 16% (2001)
Literacy rate: 99% (2011 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2011 est.): $1.389 trillion; per capita $40,300. Real growth rate: —2.2%. Inflation: 2.8%. Unemployment: 7.5%. Arable land: 5%. Agriculture: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish. Labor force: 18.67 million (2011); agriculture 2%, manufacturing 14%, construction 5%, services 75%, other 3% (2004). Industries: transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas. Natural resources: iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower. Exports: $450.6 billion f.o.b. (2011 est.): motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum. Imports: $459.6 billion f.o.b. (2011 est.): machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods. Major trading partners: U.S., Japan, UK, China, Mexico (2004).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 17,021,000 (2011); mobile cellular: 24,037,000 (2011). Radio broadcast stations: AM 245, FM 582, shortwave 6 (2004). Television broadcast stations: 80 (plus many repeaters) (1997). Internet hosts: 8,515,000 (2011). Internet users: 26.96 million (2011).
Transportation: Railways: total: 46,552 km (2011). Highways: total: 1.0423 million (2011). Waterways: 631 km; note: Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States (2003). Ports and harbors: Fraser River Port, Goderich, Montreal, Port Cartier, Quebec, Saint John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Vancouver. Airports: 1,404 (2011 est.).
International disputes: managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; working toward greater cooperation with US in monitoring people and commodities crossing the border; uncontested sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland.