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Employment Status by Industry, 1929–1998

(in millions of persons unless specified)

Category 19981997199619951990 1985 1980 1970 1950 1945 1932 1929
Employment Status1             
Civilian noninstitutional population 205.2203.1200.6198.6 189.2 178.2 167.7 137.1 105.0 94.1
 Civilian labor force 137.7136.3133.9132.3 125.8 115.5 106.9 82.8 62.2 53.9
  Civilian labor force
   participation rate (percent)
67.1%67.1%66.8%66.6%66.5%64.8%63.8%60.4%59.2%57.2%
 Employed 131.5129.6126.7124.9 118.8 107.2 99.3 78.7 58.9 52.8 38.9 47.6
  Employment-population
   ratio
64.163.863.262.9 62.8 60.1 59.2 57.4 56.1 56.1
  Agriculture 3.43.43.43.4 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.5 7.2 8.6 10.2 10.5
  Nonagricultural
   industries
128.1126.2123.3121.5 115.6 104.0 95.9 75.2 51.8 44.2 28.8 37.2
 Unemployed 6.26.77.27.4 7.1 8.3 7.6 4.1 3.3 1.0 12.1 1.6
  Unemployment rate (percent)4.5%4.9%5.4%5.6%5.6%7.2%7.1%4.9%5.3%1.9%23.6%3.2%
Not in labor force 67.666.866.766.3 63.3 62.7 60.8 54.3 42.8 40.2
Industry             
Total nonfarm employment 128.0122.3119.5117.2 109.4 97.4 90.4 70.9 45.2 40.4 23.6 31.3
 Goods-producing industries 33.224.724.324.2 24.9 24.8 25.7 23.6 18.5 17.5 8.6 13.3
  Mining 0.60.60.60.6 0.7 0.9 1.0 0.6 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.1
  Construction 8.55.65.45.2 5.1 4.7 4.3 3.6 2.4 1.1 1.0 1.5
  Manufacturing: durable goods 12.610.910.710.710.7 11.5 12.2 11.2 8.1 9.1
   Nondurable goods 8.27.67.87.87.8 7.8 8.1 8.2 7.2 6.4
 Services-producing industries 98.297.595.393.0 84.5 72.5 64.7 47.3 26.7 22.9 15.0 18.0
  Transportation and
   public utilities
7.56.46.36.2 5.8 5.2 5.1 4.5 4.0 3.9 2.8 3.9
  Trade, wholesale 5.16.76.66.4 6.2 5.7 5.3 4.0 2.6 2.0
   Retail 22.122.121.621.2 19.6 17.3 15.0 11.0 6.7 5.4
  Finance, insurance, and
   real estate
8.67.17.06.8 6.7 5.9 5.2 3.6 1.9 1.5
  Services 47.235.634.433.1 27.9 21.9 17.9 11.5 5.4 4.2
  Federal government 2.72.82.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.7 1.9 2.8
  State and local government 17.016.716.5 15.2 13.5 13.4 9.8 4.1 3.1 2.7 2.5
  Public Administration5.9
1. For 1929–45, figures on employment status relate to persons 14 years and over; beginning in 1950, 16 years and over. Data beginning in 1990, 1994, and 1998 are not directly comparable with earlier years due to the introduction of census-based population controls, the introduction of a major redesign of the Current Population Survey, and new composite estimation procedures, respectively.
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Monthly Labor Review.

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