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1200–1299 (A.D.) World History

The Crusades


King John
King John
(1167–1216)
Thomas Aquinas
(1225–1274)

1200–1204
Fourth Crusade.
1211
Genghis Khan invades China, captures Peking (1214), conquers Persia (1218), invades Russia (1223), dies (1227).
1212
Children's Crusade.
1215
King John forced by barons to sign Magna Carta at Runneymede, limiting royal power.
1217
Fifth Crusade.
1228
Sixth Crusade.
1231
The Inquisition begins as Pope Gregory IX assigns Dominicans responsibility for combating heresy. Torture used (1252). Ferdinand and Isabella establish Spanish Inquisition (1478). Tourquemada, Grand Inquisitor, forces conversion or expulsion of Spanish Jews (1492). Forced conversion of Moors (1499). Inquisition in Portugal (1531). First Protestants burned at the stake in Spain (1543). Spanish Inquisition abolished (1834).
1241
Mongols defeat Germans in Silesia, invade Poland and Hungary, withdraw from Europe after Ughetai, Mongol leader, dies.
1248
Seventh Crusade.
1251
Kublai Khan governs China, becomes ruler of Mongols (1259), establishes Yuan dynasty in China (1280), invades Burma (1287), dies (1294).
1260
Chartres cathedral consecrated.
1270
Eighth Crusade.
1271
Marco Polo of Venice travels to China, in court of Kublai Khan (1275–1292), returns to Genoa (1295) and writes Travels.
1273
Thomas Aquinas stops work on Summa Theologica, the basis of all Catholic theological teaching; never completes it.
1295
English King Edward I summons the Model Parliament.

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1100–1199 (A.D.) World History1000–1899 (A.D.) World History1300–1399 (A.D.) World History

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