1200–1299 (A.D.) World History
- Fourth Crusade.
- Genghis Khan invades China, captures Peking (1214), conquers Persia (1218), invades Russia (1223), dies (1227).
- Children's Crusade.
- King John forced by barons to sign Magna Carta at Runneymede, limiting royal power.
- Fifth Crusade.
- Sixth Crusade.
- The Inquisition begins as Pope Gregory IX assigns Dominicans responsibility for combating heresy. Torture used (1252). Ferdinand and Isabella establish Spanish Inquisition (1478). Tourquemada, Grand Inquisitor, forces conversion or expulsion of Spanish Jews (1492). Forced conversion of Moors (1499). Inquisition in Portugal (1531). First Protestants burned at the stake in Spain (1543). Spanish Inquisition abolished (1834).
- Mongols defeat Germans in Silesia, invade Poland and Hungary, withdraw from Europe after Ughetai, Mongol leader, dies.
- Seventh Crusade.
- Kublai Khan governs China, becomes ruler of Mongols (1259), establishes Yuan dynasty in China (1280), invades Burma (1287), dies (1294).
- Chartres cathedral consecrated.
- Eighth Crusade.
- Marco Polo of Venice travels to China, in court of Kublai Khan (1275–1292), returns to Genoa (1295) and writes Travels.
- Thomas Aquinas stops work on Summa Theologica, the basis of all Catholic theological teaching; never completes it.
- English King Edward I summons the Model Parliament.