1000–1099 (A.D.) World History
Mesa VerdeCliff Dwellings(c. 1000–1300)
Cathedral and Tower at Pisa
- c. 1000–1300
- Classic Pueblo period of Anasazi culture; cliff dwellings.
- c. 1000
- Hungary and Scandinavia converted to Christianity. Viking raider Leif Eriksson discovers North America, calls it Vinland. Beowulf, Old English epic.
- c. 1008
- Murasaki Shikibu finishes The Tale of Genji, the world's first novel.
- Muslims destroy Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
- Danes control England. Canute takes throne (1016), conquers Norway (1028), dies (1035); kingdom divided among his sons: Harold Harefoot (England), Sweyn (Norway), Hardecanute (Denmark).
- Macbeth murders Duncan, king of Scotland.
- Robert Guiscard, Norman invader, establishes kingdom in Italy, conquers Sicily (1072).
- Final separation between Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Roman) churches.
- Seljuk Turks, Asian nomads, move west, capture Baghdad, Armenia (1064), Syria, and Palestine (1075).
- William of Normandy invades England, defeats last Saxon king, Harold II, at Battle of Hastings, crowned William I of England (“the Conqueror”).
- Construction on the cathedral in Pisa, Italy, begins.
- Emergence of strong papacy when Gregory VII is elected. Conflict with English and French kings and German emperors will continue throughout medieval period.
- At Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II calls for a holy war to wrest control of Jerusalem from Muslims, which launches the First Crusade (1096), one of at least 8 European military campaigns between 1095 and 1291 to regain the Holy Land. (For detailed chronology, see The Crusades.)