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Yoshkar-Ola or Ioshkar-Ola (both: yəshkärˌəläˈ) [key], city (1989 pop. 242,000), capital of Mari El, E central European Russia. Manufactures include pharmaceuticals and agricultural machinery. The city was founded in 1578 as a Russian outpost.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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