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See G. E. Bean, Turkey beyond the Meander: An Archaeological Guide (1971); G. Renda and C. M. Kortepeter, ed., The Transformation of Turkish Culture (1986); D. Facaros and M. Pauls, Turkey (1987); T. Bahcheli, Greek-Turkish Relations since 1955 (1988); M. Heper and A. Evin, ed., State, Democracy, and the Military: Turkey in the 1980s (1988); N. and H. Pope, Turkey Unveiled: A History of Modern Turkey (1999); S. Kinzer, Crescent and Star (2001); A. Mango, The Turks Today (2006); M. Bogdani, Turkey and the Dilemma of EU Accession (2010); B. Eligur, The Mobilization of Political Islam in Turkey (2010); C. V. Findley, Turkey, Islam, Nationalism, and Modernity: A History, 1789–2007 (2010).

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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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