Arunachal Pradesh (ärˌənächəl prədĕshˈ) [key], state (2001 provisional pop. 1,091,117), 31,438 sq mi (81,424 sq km), NE India, bordered on the north by the Tibet region of China and on the east by Myanmar. The capital is Itanagar. Formerly the North-East Frontier Agency special territory, Arunachal Pradesh became a union territory in 1972 and a state in 1987. A remote region, it includes part of the E Himalayas and extends through mountainous highlands to the plains of Assam. Its border with Tibet, disputed by China, is known as the MacMahon line. It was established by the British, with the agreement of Tibet, in the early 20th cent.; the Chinese claim more than 90% of the territory. In Oct., 1962, the Chinese launched a massive offensive against the area, and by November they had advanced far into Indian territory. On Nov. 21, however, the Chinese proclaimed a unilateral cease-fire and withdrew behind the MacMahon line. Arunachal Pradesh is inhabited by people of Mongolic stock, most of whom practice animism. The state is governed by a chief minister responsible to a unicameral legislature and by a governor appointed by the president of India.
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