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See P. Curtin, Precolonial African History (1974); R. Hallet, Africa since 1875 (1974); W. A. Hance, The Geography of Modern Africa (rev. ed. 1975); J. D. Fage and R. Oliver, ed., The Cambridge History of Africa (8 vol., 1975–85); A. E. Afigb et al., The Making of Modern Africa (1986); UNESCO staff, The UNESCO General History of Africa (8 vol., 1988); T. Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa (1991); H. L. Wesseling, Divide and Rule: The Partition of Africa, 1880–1914 (1991, tr. 1996); R. Oliver, The African Experience (1992); J. Reader, Africa: A Biography of the Continent (1998); K. A. Appiah and H. L. Gates, Jr., ed., The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (2000).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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