See studies by W. Berns (1981), H. A. Bedau, ed. (1982), R. Berger (1982), F. Zimring and G. Hawkins (1987), R. Hood (1989), J. Jackson (1996), I. Solotaroff (2001), J. Jackson, Sr., et al. (2001), F. R. Baumgartner et al. (2008), and D. Garland (2010).
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