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ear

Introduction

ear, organ of hearing and equilibrium. The human ear consists of outer, middle, and inner parts. The outer ear is the visible portion; it includes the skin-covered flap of cartilage known as the auricle, or pinna, and the opening (auditory canal) leading to the eardrum (tympanic membrane).

The middle ear, separated from the outer ear by the eardrum, contains three small bones, or ossicles. Because of their shapes, these bones are known as the hammer (malleus), anvil (incus), and stirrup (stapes). Air reaches the middle ear through the Eustachian tube, or auditory tube, which connects it to the throat.

The inner ear, or labyrinth, contains the cochlea, which houses the sound-analyzing cells of the ear, and the vestibule, which houses the organs of equilibrium. The cochlea is a coiled, fluid-filled tube divided into the three canals: the vestibular, tympanic, and cochlear canals. The basilar membrane forms a partition between the cochlear canal and the tympanic canal and houses the organ of Corti. Anchored in the Corti structure are some 20,000 hair cells, with filaments varying in length in a manner somewhat analogous to harp strings. These are the sensory hearing cells, connected at their base with the auditory nerve.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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