Modern Cosmological Theories
Present models of the universe hold two fundamental premises: the cosmological principle and the dominant role of gravitation. Derived by Hubble, the cosmological principle holds that if a large enough sample of galaxies is considered, the universe looks the same from all positions and in all directions in space. The second point of agreement is that gravitation (or an antigravitation force, called dark energy) is the most important force in shaping the universe. According to Einstein's general theory of relativity, which is a geometric interpretation of gravitation, matter produces gravitational effects by actually distorting the space about it; the curvature of space is described by a form of non-Euclidean geometry. A number of cosmological theories satisfy both the cosmological principle and general relativity. The two main theories are the big-bang hypothesis and the steady-state hypothesis, with many variations on each basic approach.The Steady-State Theory
According to the steady-state theory, now of historical interest only, the universe expands, but new matter is continuously created at all points in space left by the receding galaxies. The theory implies that the universe has always expanded, with no beginning or end, at a uniform rate and that it always will expand and maintain a constant density.
According to big-bang theories, at the beginning of time, all of the matter and energy in the universe was concentrated in a very dense state, from which it "exploded," with the resulting expansion continuing until the present. This "big bang" is dated between 10 and 20 billion years ago, most likely c.13.75 billion years ago. In this initial state, the universe was very hot and contained a thermal soup of quarks, electrons, photons, and other elementary particles. The temperature rapidly decreased, falling from 1013 degrees Kelvin after the first microsecond to about one billion degrees after three minutes. As the universe cooled, the quarks condensed into protons and neutrons, the building blocks of atomic nuclei. Some of these were converted into helium nuclei by fusion; the relative abundance of hydrogen and helium is used as a test of the theory. After many millions of years the expanding universe, at first a very hot gas, thinned and cooled enough to condense into individual galaxies and then stars.
Several spectacular discoveries since 1950 have shed new light on the problem. Optical and radio astronomy complemented each other in the discovery of the quasars and the radio galaxies. It is believed that the energy reaching us now from some of these objects was emitted not long after the creation of the universe. Further evidence for the big-bang theory was the discovery in 1965 that a cosmic background noise is received from every part of the sky. This background radiation has the same intensity and distribution of frequencies in all directions and is not associated with any individual celestial object. It has a blackbody temperature of 2.7°K ( - 270°C) and is interpreted as the electromagnetic remnant of the primordial fireball, stretched to long wavelengths by the expansion of the universe. More recently, the analysis of radiation from distant celestial objects detected by artificial satellites has given additional evidence for the big-bang theory.
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