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The classic symptoms of cancer are rapid weight loss; a change in a wart or mole; a sore that does not heal; difficulty swallowing; chronic hoarseness, blood in phlegm, urine, or stool (a consequence of angiogenesis); chronic abdominal pain; a change in size or shape of the testes; a change in bowel habits; a lump in the breast; and unusual vaginal bleeding. Many of these and other symptoms are often nonspecific, e.g., weakness, loss of appetite, and weight loss, and thus are not obvious in the early stages. Sometimes the side effects of tumor growth are more severe than the actual effects of the malignancy; for example, some tumors secrete materials such as serotonin and histamine that can cause drastic vascular changes. Conversely, cancers that destroy tissue may also have serious effects, e.g., malignant destruction of bone tissue may raise the blood level of calcium.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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