The Differential Calculus
The differential calculus arises from the study of the limit of a quotient, Δ y /Δ x, as the denominator Δ x approaches zero, where x and y are variables. y may be expressed as some function of x, or f(x), and Δ y and Δ x represent corresponding increments, or changes, in y and x. The limit of Δ y /Δ x is called the derivative of y with respect to x and is indicated by dy / dx or D x y :;e3;none;1;e3;;;block;;;;no;1;4224n;185422n;;;;;eq3;comptd;;center;stack;;;;;CE5The symbols dy and dx are called differentials (they are single symbols, not products), and the process of finding the derivative of y = f(x) is called differentiation. The derivative dy / dx = df(x) / dx is also denoted by y′, or f′(x). The derivative f′(x) is itself a function of x and may be differentiated, the result being termed the second derivative of y with respect to x and denoted by y″, f″(x), or d 2 y / dx 2. This process can be continued to yield a third derivative, a fourth derivative, and so on. In practice formulas have been developed for finding the derivatives of all commonly encountered functions. For example, if y = x n , then y′ = nx n - 1, and if y = sin x, then y′ = cos x (see trigonometry). In general, the derivative of y with respect to x expresses the rate of change in y for a change in x. In physical applications the independent variable (here x ) is frequently time; e.g., if s = f ( t ) expresses the relationship between distance traveled, s, and time elapsed, t, then s′ = f′ ( t ) represents the rate of change of distance with time, i.e., the speed, or velocity.
Everyday calculations of velocity usually divide the distance traveled by the total time elapsed, yielding the average velocity. The derivative f′ ( t ) = ds / dt, however, gives the velocity for any particular value of t, i.e., the instantaneous velocity. Geometrically, the derivative is interpreted as the slope of the line tangent to a curve at a point. If y = f ( x ) is a real-valued function of a real variable, the ratio Δ y /Δ x = ( y 2 - y 1)/( x 2 - x 1) represents the slope of a straight line through the two points P ( x 1, y 1) and Q ( x 2, y 2) on the graph of the function. If P is taken closer to Q, then x 1 will approach x 2 and Δ x will approach zero. In the limit where Δ x approaches zero, the ratio becomes the derivative dy / dx = f′ ( x ) and represents the slope of a line that touches the curve at the single point Q, i.e., the tangent line. This property of the derivative yields many applications for the calculus, e.g., in the design of optical mirrors and lenses and the determination of projectile paths.
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