Tewfik Pasha (Muhammad Tewfik)toufēkˈ päshäˈ, 1852–92, khedive of Egypt (1879–92). He acceded to office when his father, Ismail Pasha, was deposed. In 1880, Tewfik accepted joint French-British control over the nation's finances. This act provoked a nationalist uprising that forced Tewfik to appoint a cabinet hostile to the European powers. The British and the French, however, quickly compelled the cabinet to resign. Later, in 1882, Great Britain, alarmed by renewed agitation, bombarded Alexandria and landed troops. France had refused to support this action and ended participation in Egyptian affairs, thus leaving Great Britain in sole control. Tewfik, who was generally Western in his outlook, devoted much attention to educational and legal reforms. He was succeeded as khedive by his son Abbas II.
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