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Muzaffar ad-Din

Muzaffar ad-Din (mōzäf-färˈ äd-dēnˈ) [key], 1853–1907, shah of Persia (1896–1907), son of Nasir ad-Din. A weak ruler, he borrowed money from Russia and failed to oppose the encroachments of Russia and Great Britain on Persian sovereignty. Much disaffection arose among the people. After the revolutionary outburst of 1906, he was forced to agree to the convocation of a national assembly. He died soon after signing the long-awaited liberal constitution. He was succeeded by Muhammad Ali.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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