| Share

Liu Xiaobo

Liu Xiaobo (lyō shoubō) [key], 1955–, Chinese literary critic, poet, and political and human-rights activist, b. Changchun, grad. Jilin Univ. (B.A., 1982), Beijing Normal Univ. (M.A., 1984; Ph.D., 1988). He taught literature at Beijing Normal, published widely, and in the 1980s became known for his fiery lectures and scathing literary criticism. Beginning in 1988 Liu was a visiting scholar at such universities as Hawaii, Oslo, and Columbia, where he was teaching when the Tiananmen Square protests began in 1989. Returning to China, he assumed a leadership role in the protests, advocated nonviolence and democracy, attempted to negotiate, undertook a hunger strike, and was imprisoned for 21 months. Since then he has been barred from publishing in China (though he has sometimes done so pseudonymously and also has published abroad), and after his release from prison he was blacklisted from Chinese academia. In 1995–96 and 1996–99 Liu was again imprisoned for his political activities. In 2008 he coauthored Charter 08, which called for political and human-rights reforms and multiparty democracy. He was arrested, charged with "incitement of subversion of state power," and after a closed one-day trial (2009) sentenced to 11 years in prison. Liu was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2010. He was the first Chinese citizen to win the award. Despite China's many bans on his work, by the 2010s Liu had published 17 books and hundreds of articles and poems. No Enemies, No Hatred (2012), a collection of his essays and poems that spans two decades and provides insights into many aspects of contemporary Chinese life, is the first of his works to appear in English translation.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

More on Liu Xiaobo from Infoplease:

  • Liu Xiaobo - Biography of Liu Xiaobo, The Chinese writer who won 2010's Nobel Peace Prize
  • 2009 PEN Literary Award Winners - 2009 PEN Literary Award Winners from Nabokov to The Laura Pels Foundation for Drama.
  • Selected Biographies: X - Selected biographies of well-known people and fictional characters
  • 2010 Nobel Prize Winners - Find the winners of the 2010 Nobel Prizes, including prizes for Peace, Physics, Medicine, Chemistry, Literature, and Economics
  • Nobel Prize for Peace - Below find every winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, from 1901 through 2009. Winners include Barack Obama, the Dalai Lama, Henry Kissinger, Theodore Roosevelt, and Desmond Tutu.

See more Encyclopedia articles on: Social Reformers

24 X 7

Private Tutor

Click Here for Details
24 x 7 Tutor Availability
Unlimited Online Tutoring
1-on-1 Tutoring