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Sanford Ballard Dole

Dole, Sanford Ballard, 1844–1926, Hawaiian statesman, b. Honolulu, of American missionary parents. After education in the United States he returned to Hawaii and became prominent in public life. A leader of the revolution that in 1887 secured a more democratic constitution, Dole became justice of the supreme court under the new government. He looked with disfavor upon the revolution of 1893 that overthrew Queen Liliuokalani, but once it was accomplished he was willing to accept the office of president under the provisional government. The application of the revolutionists for annexation to the United States was refused by President Cleveland, who, after sending James H. Blount to investigate, demanded the restoration of the queen. Dole's reply, in which he defended the revolution and denied Cleveland's right to interfere, was one of his ablest papers. A constitutional convention was then held (1894), and the republic of Hawaii was created. Dole was declared the first president. His administration, during which he made efforts to secure annexation, was successful in spite of attempts at a counterrevolution and difficulties with Japan concerning immigration. After the islands were annexed in 1898 during McKinley's administration, Dole headed a commission to Congress to recommend legislation for Hawaii. The report included the draft of a bill which became the Organic Act of 1900. Dole was appointed first governor of the Territory of Hawaii in 1900. He resigned in 1903 to become U.S. district judge for Hawaii.

See biography by E. M. Damon (1957).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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