Ludwig van Beethoven


See his letters, ed. by E. Anderson (3 vol., tr. 1961); biographies by A. F. Schindler (tr. 1966), M. Solomon (rev. ed. 1998), and L. Lockwood (2002); studies by D. F. Tovey (1945), W. S. Newman (1971), and R. Kamien (1992); E. Forbes, ed., Thayer's Life of Beethoven (2 vol., rev. ed. 1967); H. C. R. Landon, ed., Beethoven: A Documentary Study (1970); D. Arnold and N. Fortune, ed., The Beethoven Reader (1971); M. Cooper, Beethoven's Last Decade (1985); M. Solomon, Beethoven Essays (1988) and Late Beethoven (2003); S. Burnham, Beethoven Hero (1995).

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