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Dynasties of Ancient Egypt

Dynasties of Ancient Egypt

Old Kingdom (or Old Empire)

DynastyYearsFamous Rulers
I3110–2884 B.C. MenesMenes
II2884–2780 B.C. 
III2780–2680 B.C. SnefruSnefru
IV2680–2565 B.C. KhufuKhufu (Cheops), KhafreKhafre , MenkaureMenkaure . Age of the great pyramids.
V2565–2420 B.C. 
VI2420–2258 B.C. Pepi IPepi1 , Pepi IIPepi2

First Intermediate Period

VII, VIII2258–2225 B.C.An obscure period.
IX, X2225–2134 B.C.Capital at Heracleopolis.
XI2134–c.2000 B.C.Capital at Thebes.

Middle Kingdom (or Middle Empire)

XII2000–1786 B.C. Amenemhet IAmenemht1 , Sesostris ISesostri1 , Amenemhet IIAmenemht2 , Sesostris IISesostri2 , Sesostris IIISesostri3 , Amenemhet IIIAmenemht3 , Amenemhet IVAmenemht4

Second Intermediate Period

XIII–XVII1786–1570 B.C. The HyksosHyksos . An obscure period.

New Kingdom (or New Empire)

XVIII1570–c.1342 B.C. Amenhotep IAmenhotp1 , Thutmose IThutmose1 , HatshepsutHatsheps (with Thutmose IIThutmose2 initially), Thutmose IIIThutmose3 , Amenhotep IIAmenhotp2 , Thutmose IVThutmose4 , Amenhotep IIIAmenhotp3 , Amenhotep IV ( IkhnatonIkhnaton ), TutankhamenTutankha
XIXc.1342–1200 B.C. HoremhebHoremheb , Ramses IRamses1 , Seti ISeti1 , Ramses IIRamses2 , MerneptahMernepta , Seti IISeti2
XX1200–1085 B.C. Ramses IIIRamses3 with TiyTiy2 . New Kingdom declines.
XXI1085–945 B.C.Tanite dynasty (capital at Tanis).
XXII945–745 B.C. Sheshonk ISheshonk . Libyan dynasty (capital at Bubastis).
XXIII745–718 B.C. Nubian dynasty with invasion of PiankhiPiankhi (capital at Bubastis).
XXIV718–712 B.C.Saïte dynasty (capital at Saïs).
XXV712–663 B.C. TaharkaTaharka . Assyrian invasions begin foreign domination.
XXVI663–525 B.C. PsamtikPsamtik , NechoNecho2 , ApriesApries , Amasis IIAmasis2 (capital at Saïs).
XXVII525–405 B.C. The AchaemenidsAchaemen of Persia in control. CambysesCambyses II to Darius IIDarius2 . Egypt revolts.
XXVIII–XXX405–332 B.C. NekhtnebfNekhtnebf , NekhtharhebNekhtharh . Last native dynasties, ending with conquest by Alexander the GreatAlexGreat . Capital at Saïs, then at Mendes, then at Sebennytos.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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