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Outstanding among eyewitness acounts are those of William of Tyre, Richard of Devizes, Geoffroi de Villehardouin, Jean de Joinville, Anna Comnena, Fulcher of Chartres, and Nicetas Acominatus.

The chief collection of sources is Recueil des historiens des croisades (ed. by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belle-Lettres, 16 vol., 1841–1906). For sources in translation see E. Peters, ed., Christian Society and the Crusades (1971) and The First Crusade (1971). Treatments in English include S. Runciman, A History of the Crusades (3 vol., 1951–54, repr. 1962–66); D. Queller, The Fourth Crusade (1977); H. E. Mayer, The Crusades (2d ed. 1988); K. M. Setton, ed., The History of the Crusades (6 vol., 2d ed., 1969–89); T. Asbridge, The First Crusade: A New History (2004); J. Phillips, The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople (2004); C. Tyerman, Fighting for Christendom: Holy War and the Crusades (2004); J. N. Claster, Sacred Violence: The European Crusades to the Middle East, 1095–1396 (2009); J. Phillips, Holy Warriors: A Modern History of the Crusades (2010); J. Rubenstein, Armies of Heaven: The First Crusade and the Quest for Apocalypse (2011); P. Frankopan, The First Crusade: The Call from the East (2012); N. Paul and S. Yeager, ed., Remembering the Crusades: Myth, Image, and Identity (2012).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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