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Abbreviations

The following abbreviations are used in the text of The Columbia Encyclopedia

  • Å=angstrom
  • AA=Alcoholics Anonymous
  • AAA=Agricultural Adjustment Act; Agricultural Adjustment Administration; Agricultural Adjustment Agency
  • AAU=Amateur Athletic Union
  • A.B.=Artium Baccalaureus [Bachelor of Arts]
  • ABA=American Bar Association, American Basketball Association
  • abbr.=abbreviation(s), abbreviated
  • abr.=abridged
  • AC=alternating current
  • Acad.=Academy
  • ACLU=American Civil Liberties Union
  • A.D.=anno Domini [in the year of the Lord]
  • AEC=Atomic Energy Commission
  • AFL=American Federation of Labor
  • AFL-CIO=American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations
  • Afrik.=Afrikaans
  • AIA=American Institute of Architects
  • AKC=American Kennel Club
  • AL=American League (baseball)
  • ALA=American Library Association
  • Ala.=Alabama
  • alt.=altitude
  • Alta.=Alberta
  • A.M.=Artium Magister [Master of Arts]
  • A.M.=ante meridiem [before noon]
  • AM=amplitude modulation
  • AMA=American Medical Association
  • amp=ampere(s)
  • amp-hr=ampere-hour(s)
  • amu=atomic mass unit(s)
  • antilog=antilogarithm
  • AP=Associated Press
  • Arab.=Arabic
  • Ariz.=Arizona
  • Ark.=Arkansas
  • A.S.=Anglo-Saxon
  • ASCAP=American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers Assn.=Association
  • ASSR=Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
  • at. no.=atomic number
  • AT&T=American Telephone and Telegraph Company
  • at. wt.=atomic weight
  • AU=African Union; astronomical unit(s)
  • Aug.=August
  • AV=Authorized Version
  • avdp.=avoirdupois
  • Ave.=Avenue
  • b.=born, born in
  • B.A.=Bachelor of Arts
  • BBC=British Broadcasting Corporation
  • B.C.=before Christ
  • B.D.=Bachelor of Divinity
  • B.Lit.=Bachelor of Literature
  • B.Mus.=Bachelor of Music
  • b.p.=boiling point
  • Brig. Gen.=Brigadier General
  • B.S.=Bachelor of Science
  • Btu=British thermal unit(s)
  • Bul.=Bulletin
  • Bulg.=Bulgarian
  • C=Celsius (centigrade)
  • c.=circa [about]
  • cal=calorie(s)
  • Calif.=California
  • Cant.=Canticles (Song of Solomon)
  • Capt.=Captain
  • CARE=Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere
  • cc=cubic centimeter(s)
  • cd=candela(s)
  • cent.=century, centuries
  • CENTO=Central Treaty Organization
  • CEO=chief executive officer
  • cgs=centimeter-gram-second
  • Chem.E.=Chemical Engineering
  • Chin.=Chinese
  • Chron.=Chronicles
  • CIA=Central Intelligence Agency
  • CID=Criminal Investigation Department
  • CIO=Congress of Industrial Organizations
  • cm=centimeter(s)
  • cm/sec2=centimeter(s) per second per second
  • co.=county
  • Co.=County
  • Col.=Colonel, Colossians
  • Coll.=Collection
  • Colo.=Colorado
  • Comdr.=Commander
  • COMECON=Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
  • comp.=compiled, compiler
  • com. pop.=commune population
  • Comsat=Communications Satellite Corp.
  • Conn.=Connecticut
  • Cor.=Corinthians
  • CORE=Congress of Racial Equality
  • Corp.=Corporation
  • cos=cosine
  • cot=cotangent
  • coul=coulomb(s)
  • CPA=Certified Public Accountant
  • Cpl.=Corporal
  • CPO=Chief Petty Officer
  • csc=cosecant
  • cu=cubic
  • d.=died, died in
  • Dan.=Daniel; Danish
  • DAR=Daughters of the American Revolution
  • dB=decibel(s)
  • D.C.=District of Columbia
  • DC=direct current
  • D.C.L.=doctor of Civil Law
  • D.D.=Doctor of Divinity
  • D.D.S.=Doctor of Dental Surgery
  • DDT=dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
  • Dec.=December
  • dec.=declination
  • Del.=Delaware
  • dept.=department
  • Deut.=Deuteronomy
  • dir.=directed, director
  • dist.=district
  • div.=division
  • DNA=deoxyribonucleic acid
  • Dr.=doctor
  • dr.=dram(s)
  • D.Sc.=Doctor of Science
  • Du.=Dutch
  • E=east
  • EC=European Community
  • ECA=Economic Cooperation Administration
  • Eccles.=Ecclesiastes
  • Ecclus.=Ecclesiasticus
  • ECSC=European Coal and Steel Community
  • ed.=edited, edition, editor(s)
  • EDC=European Defense Community
  • E.E.=Electrical Engineering
  • EEA=European Economic Area
  • EEC=European Economic Community
  • EFTA=European Free Trade Association
  • e.g.=exempli gratia [for example]
  • emf=electromotive force
  • emu=electromagnetic unit(s)
  • Eng.=English
  • enl.=enlarged
  • EEOC=Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
  • Eph.=Ephesians
  • ERA=Emergency Relief Administration; Equal Rights Amendment
  • ERP=European Recovery Program
  • ESC=Economic and Social Council (UN)
  • ESP=extrasensory perception
  • est.=established; estimated
  • et al.=et alii [and others]
  • EU=European Union
  • eV=electron volts
  • Ex.=Exodus
  • Ezek.=Ezekiel
  • F=Fahrenheit; farad
  • F=faces; force; formal
  • FAA=Federal Aviation Administration
  • fac.=facsimile
  • FAO=Food and Agriculture Organization
  • FBI=Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • FCC=Federal Communications Commission
  • FDA=Food and Drug Administration
  • Feb.=February
  • FEPC=Fair Employment Practices Committee
  • Finn.=Finnish
  • fl.=floruit [flourished]
  • Fla.=Florida
  • fl oz=fluid ounce(s)
  • FM=frequency modulation
  • Fr.=French
  • Ft.=Fort
  • ft=foot, feet
  • FTC=Federal Trade Commission
  • ft-lb=foot-pound(s)
  • G=gauss
  • Ga.=Georgia
  • Gal.=Galatians
  • gal.=gallon(s)
  • Gall.=Gallery
  • GATT=General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
  • GDP=gross domestic product
  • Gen.=General, Genesis
  • Ger.=German
  • GeV=billion electron volts
  • GHz=gigahertz
  • GMT=Greenwich mean time
  • GNP=gross national product
  • GOP=Grand Old Party (Republican Party)
  • Gov.=Governor
  • Gr.=Greek
  • grad.=graduated, graduated at
  • H=henry
  • h=hour
  • Hab.=Habakkuk
  • Hag.=Haggai
  • Heb.=Hebrew; Hebrews (NT)
  • H.M.S.=His (Her) Majesty's Ship; His (Her) Majesty's Service
  • Hon.=the Honorable
  • hp=horsepower
  • hr=hour(s)
  • Hung.=Hungarian
  • Hz=hertz or cycle(s) per second
  • IAU=International Astronomical Union
  • IBM=International Business Machines Corp.
  • IBT=International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen, and Helpers of America (Teamsters Union)
  • ICAO=International Civil Aviation Organization
  • ICBM=intercontinental ballistic missile
  • ICC=Interstate Commerce Commission
  • Icel.=Icelandic
  • i.e.=id est [that is]
  • IGY=International Geophysical Year
  • ILGWU=International Ladies Garment Workers Union
  • Ill.=Illinois
  • ILO=International Labor Organization
  • IMF=International Monetary Fund
  • in.=inch(es)
  • inc.=incorporated
  • Ind.=Indiana
  • Inst.=Institute, Institution
  • introd.=introduction
  • IQ=intelligence quotient
  • IRA=Individual Retirement Account; Irish Republican Army
  • IRBM=intermediate-range ballistic missile
  • IRS=Internal Revenue Service
  • Isa.=Isaiah
  • Ital.=Italian
  • ITU=International Telecommunications Union
  • IUPAC=International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
  • IWW=Industrial Workers of the World
  • j=joule(s)
  • Jan.=January
  • Jap.=Japanese
  • J.D.=Juris Doctor [Doctor of Law]
  • Jer.=Jeremiah
  • jg=junior grade
  • Jr.=Junior
  • K=Kelvin
  • Kans.=Kansas
  • kc=kilocycle(s)
  • kg=kilogram(s)
  • KGB=Komityet Gosudarstvyennoy Byezopasnosti [Committee for State Security]
  • kgm=kilogram meter(s)
  • KKK=Ku Klux Klan
  • kl=kiloliter(s)
  • km=kilometer(s)
  • kW=kilowatt(s)
  • kWh=kilowatt hour(s)
  • Ky.=Kentucky
  • £=librae [pounds]
  • La.=Louisiana
  • Lam.=Lamentations
  • Lat.=Latin
  • lat.=latitude
  • lb=libra [pound], librae [pounds]
  • Lev.=Leviticus
  • L.H.D.=Litterarum Humaniorum Doctor [Doctor of Humane
  • Letters]
  • Lib.=Library
  • lim=limit
  • Lith.=Lithuanian
  • Litt.B.=Litterarum Baccalaureus [Bachelor of Literature]
  • Litt.D.=Litterarum Doctor [Doctor of Literature]
  • LL.B.=Legum Baccalaureus [Bachelor of Laws]
  • LL.D.=Legum Doctor [Doctor of Laws]
  • ln=logarithm, natural
  • log=logarithm
  • long.=longitude
  • LSD=lysergic acid diethylamide
  • Lt.=Lieutenant
  • Lt. Col.=Lieutenant Colonel
  • Ltd.=Limited
  • Lt. Gen.=Lieutenant General
  • Lt. Gov.=Lieutenant Governor
  • M=molar
  • m=meter(s)
  • m=molal
  • m=minute(s)
  • M.A.=Masters of Arts
  • Mac.=Maccabees
  • Maj. Gen.=Major General
  • Mal.=Malachi
  • Man.=Manitoba
  • Mass.=Massachusetts
  • mass no.=mass number
  • Mat.=Matthew
  • M.D.=Medicinae Doctor [Doctor of Medicine]
  • Md.=Maryland
  • M.E.=Mechanical Engineering; Middle English
  • MeV=million electron volts
  • Mex.=Mexican
  • mg=milligram(s)
  • M.H.G.=Middle High German
  • mi=mile(s)
  • Mich.=Michigan
  • min=minute(s)
  • Minn.=Minnesota
  • Miss.=Mississippi
  • mks=meter-kilogram-second
  • ml=milliliter(s)
  • Mlle=Mademoiselle [Miss]
  • mm=millimeter(s)
  • Mme=Madame [Mrs.]
  • Mo.=Missouri
  • Mont.=Montana
  • m.p.=melting point
  • M.P.A.=Master of Public Administration
  • mph=miles per hour
  • Mr.=Mister (always abbreviated)
  • Mrs.=Mistress (always abbreviated)
  • M.S.=Master of Science
  • MS, MSS=manuscript(s)
  • Ms.=variant of Miss or Mrs. that does not indicate marital status (not a true abbreviation)
  • m/sec2=meters per second per second
  • Msgr=Monsignor
  • mt.=mountain
  • Mt.=Mount, Mountain
  • mts.=mountains
  • Mts.=Mountains
  • Mus.=Museum
  • Mus.B.=Musicae Baccalaureus [Bachelor of Music]
  • Mus.D.=Musicae Doctor [Doctor of Music]
  • MW=megawatt(s)
  • N=north; Newton(s)
  • N=normal (unit of measure)
  • NAACP=National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
  • NAFTA=North American Free Trade Agreement
  • NASA=National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  • Nasdaq=National Association of Securities Dealers Automatic Quotations
  • NATO=North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • N.B.=New Brunswick
  • NBA=National Basketball Association
  • N.C.=North Carolina
  • NCAA=National Collegiate Athletic Association
  • NCO=Noncommissioned Officer
  • N.Dak.=North Dakota
  • NE=northeast
  • NEA=National Education Association
  • Nebr.=Nebraska
  • Neh.=Nehemiah
  • Nev.=Nevada
  • New Lat.=New Latin
  • NFL=National Football League
  • N.H.=New Hampshire
  • NHL=National Hockey League
  • N.J.=New Jersey
  • NL=National League (baseball)
  • N.L.=Newfoundland and Labrador
  • NLRB=National Labor Relations Board
  • N.Mex.=New Mexico
  • NNW=northwest
  • no.=numero [number]
  • Nor.=Norwegian
  • Nov.=November
  • NRA=National Recovery Administration
  • NRC=Nuclear Regulatory Commission
  • N.S.=New Style; Nova Scotia
  • NSF=National Science Foundation
  • Num.=Numbers
  • N.Y.=New York
  • NYA=National Youth Administration
  • NYSE=New York Stock Exchange
  • OAS=Organization of American States
  • Obad.=Obadiah
  • Oct.=October
  • O.E.=Old English
  • OECD=Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
  • OEO=Office of Economic Opportunity
  • OES=Office of Economic Stabilization
  • O.Fr.=Old French
  • O.H.G.=Old High German
  • Okla.=Oklahoma
  • O.N.=Old Norse
  • Ont.=Ontario
  • Op.=Opus [work]
  • OPA=Office of Price Administration
  • Oreg.=Oregon
  • O.S.=Old Style
  • OSCE=Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
  • OSS=Office of Strategic Services
  • oz=ounce(s)
  • Pa.=Pennsylvania
  • PAU=Pan American Union
  • Pd.D.=Pedagogiae Doctor [Doctor of Pedagogy]
  • P.E.I.=Prince Edward Island
  • Pers.=Persian
  • PFC=Private First Class
  • PGA=Professional Golfers Association
  • Ph.B.=Philosophiae Baccalaureus [Bachelor of Philosophy]
  • Ph.D.=Philosophiae Doctor [Doctor of Philosophy]
  • Philip.=Philippians
  • pl.=plural
  • PLC=public limited company
  • P.M.=post meridiem [afternoon]
  • PO=Petty Officer
  • Pol.=Polish
  • pop.=population
  • Port.=Portuguese
  • Pr. of Manas.=Prayer of Manasses
  • Prov.=Proverbs
  • prov(s).=province(s)
  • Ps.=Psalm
  • pseud.=pseudonym
  • Pss.=Psalms
  • pt.=part(s)
  • pt=pint(s)
  • pub.=published; publisher
  • Pvt.=Private
  • PWA=Public Works Administration
  • qt=quart(s)
  • Que.=Quebec
  • R=Roentgen
  • R.A.=right ascension
  • RAF=Royal Air Force
  • repr.=reprinted
  • Rev.=Revelation; the Reverend
  • rev.=revised
  • R.I.=Rhode Island
  • R.N.=registered nurse
  • RNA=ribonucleic acid
  • Rom.=Romanian, Romans
  • ROTC=Reserve Officers Training Corps
  • rpm=revolution(s) per minute
  • RR=railroad
  • RSFSR=Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic
  • RSV=Revised Standard Version
  • Rt. Rev.=the Right Reverend
  • Rus.=Russian
  • RV=Revised Version
  • S=south
  • s=second(s)
  • Sam.=Samuel
  • Sask.=Saskatchewan
  • S.C.=South Carolina
  • Sc.D.=Scientiae Doctor [Doctor of Science]
  • S.Dak.=South Dakota
  • SE=southeast
  • SEATO=Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
  • SEC=Securities and Exchange Commission
  • sec=second(s); secant
  • Sept.=September
  • Ser.=Series
  • Sgt.=Sergeant
  • sin=sine
  • S.J.=Societas Jesu [Society of Jesus]
  • Skt.=Sanskrit
  • Song=Song of Solomon
  • SOS=distress signal (not a true abbreviation)
  • Span.=Spanish
  • SPCA=Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
  • SPCC=Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children
  • sp. gr.=specific gravity
  • sq=square
  • Sr.=Senior
  • S.S.=Steamship
  • SSR=Soviet Socialist Republic
  • St.=Saint; Street
  • S.T.D.=Sacrae Theologiae Doctor [Doctor of Sacred
  • Theology]
  • Ste=Sainte [feminine of Saint]
  • STP=standard temperature and pressure
  • SW=southwest
  • Swed.=Swedish
  • tan=tangent
  • TASS=Telegraphnoye Agentstvo Sovyetskovo Soyuza [Soviet
  • News Agency]
  • Tenn.=Tennessee
  • Tex.=Texas
  • Thess.=Thessalonians
  • Tim.=Timothy
  • TNT=trinitrotoluene, trinitrototoluol
  • tr.=translated, translation, translator(s)
  • Turk.=Turkish
  • TVA=Tennessee Valley Authority
  • UAW=United Automobile Workers
  • UHF=ultrahigh frequency
  • Ukr.=Ukrainian
  • UMW=United Mine Workers
  • UN=United Nations
  • UNESCO=United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
  • Organization
  • UNICEF=United Nations Children's Fund
  • uninc.=unincorporated
  • Univ.=University
  • UNRRA=United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration
  • UPI=United Press International
  • U.S.=United States
  • USA=United States Army
  • USAF=United States Air Force
  • USCG=United States Coast Guard
  • USMC=United States Marine Corps
  • USN=United States Navy
  • USO=United Service Organization
  • U.S.S.=United States Ship
  • USSR=Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
  • UT=universal time
  • V=volt(s)
  • v.=versus
  • VA=Department of Veterans Affairs; Veterans Administration
  • Va.=Virginia
  • var.=variety (in botany)
  • Ved.=Vedic
  • VFW=Veterans of Foreign Wars
  • VHF=very high frequency
  • VISTA=Volunteers in Service to America
  • vol.=volume(s)
  • vs.=versus
  • Vt.=Vermont
  • W=west; watt(s)
  • WAC=Women's Army Corps
  • Wash.=Washington
  • WAVES=Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service (United States
  • Women's Naval Reserve)
  • WCTU=Women's Christian Temperance Union
  • WEU=Western European Union
  • WFTU=World Federation of Trade Unions
  • WHO=World Health Organization
  • Wis.=Wisconsin
  • WMO=World Meteorological Organization
  • WPA=Work Projects Administration
  • wt.=weight
  • WTO=World Trade Organization
  • W.Va.=West Virginia
  • Wyo.=Wyoming
  • yd=yard(s)
  • YMCA=Young Men's Christian Association
  • YMHA=Young Men's Hebrew Association
  • YWCA=Young Women's Christian Association
  • YWHA=Young Women's Hebrew Association
  • Zech.=Zechariah
  • Zeph.=Zephaniah

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright 2012, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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