For British and European unions, see C. Wrigley, British Trade Unions, 1945–1995 (1997); Q. Outram and R. A. Church, Strikes and Solidarity: Coalfield Conflict in Britain, 1889–1966 (1998); W. H. Fraser, A History of British Trade Unionism, 1700–1998 (1999); A. Martin and G. Ross, ed., The Brave New World of European Labor (1999); for American unions, see J. R. Commons, History of Labor in the United States (4 vol., 1918–35; repr. 1966); D. Montgomery, The Fall of the House of Labor (1989); F. R. Dulles and M. Dubofsky, Labor in America: A History (5th ed. 1993); R. H. Zieger, American Workers, American Unions (1994); M. Dubofksy, Industrialization and the American Worker, 1865–1920 (1996); H. Kimeldorf, Battling for American Labor: Wobblies, Craft Workers, and the Making of the Union Movement (1999); R. M. Tillman and M. S. Cummings, The Transformation of U.S. Unions (1999). See also W. Galenson, Trade Union Democracy in Western Europe (1961, repr. 1976); M. Schneider, A Brief History of the German Trade Unions (1991); H. A. Cook, The Most Difficult Revolution: Women and Trade Unions (1992); W. Lecher, ed., Trade Unions in the European Union (1994); L. J. Cook, Labor and Liberalization: Trade Unions in the New Russia (1997); H. Chapman et al., ed., A Century of Organized Labor in France (1998).
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