(1) Of England- Henry IV. was styled His Grace; Henry VI., His Excellent Grace; Edward IV., High and Mighty Prince; Henry VII., His Grace and His Majesty; Henry VIII., His Highness, then His Majesty, Subsequently kings were styled His Sacred Majesty. Our present style is Her Most Gracious Majesty. (2) Royal titles, their meaning: A bimelech (Father King ). Autocrat (self-potentate, i.e. absolute). Caesar (in compliment to Julius Caesar). Calif (successor). Cham (chieftain). Czar (autocrat, a contraction of Samodersheta). Darius (holder of the empire). Duke (leader). Emperor (commander). Hospodar (Slavonic, master of the house). Kaiser (Caesar). Khan (provincial chief). Khedive (suzerain). King (father). Landgrave (land reeve). Maharajah (great sovereign). Margrave (border reeve). Nejus (lord protector). Nizam (ruler). Pharaoh (light of the world). Queen (mother). Rajah (prince or sovereign). Shah or Padishah (protector, sceptred protector). Sheik (elder). Sultan (ruler).
Source: Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, E. Cobham Brewer, 1894