Sir John Mandeville says- A Jewish maid of Bethlehem (whom
Southey names Zillah) was beloved by one Hamuel, a brutish sot. Zillah
rejected his suit, and Hamuel vowed vengeance. He gave out that Zillah
was a demoniac, and she was condemned to be burnt; but God averted the
flames, the stake budded, and the maid stood unharmed under a
rose-tree full of white and red roses, then “first seen on earth since
Paradise was lost.”
An emblem of England. It is also the cognisance of the Richmonds,
hence the rose in the mouth of one of the foxes which support the
shield in the public-house called the Holland Arms, Kensington.
The daughter of the Duke of Richmond (Lady Caroline Lennox) ran away
with Mr. Henry Fox, afterwards Baron Holland of Foxley. So the Fox
stole the Rose and ran off with it.
In the language of flowers, different roses have a different
signification. For example:- The Burgundy Rose signifies simplicity
The China Rose, grace or beauty ever fresh.
The Daily Rose, a smile.
The Dog Rose, pleasure mixed with pain.
A Faded Rose, beauty is fleeting.
The Japan Rose, beauty your sole attraction.
The Moss Rose, voluptuous love.
The Musk Rose, capricious beauty.
The Provence Rose, my heart is in flames.
The White Rose Bud, too young to love.
The White Rose full of buds, secrecy.
A wreath of Roses, beauty and virtue rewarded. The Yellow Rose,
The red rose, says Sir John Mandeville, sprang from the
extinguished brands heaped around a virgin martyr at Bethlehem, named
Zillah. (See Rose.)
The Red Rose [of Lancaster].
(See Roses, The Wars of the Roses.)
The Red Rose
(as a public-house sign). Camden says the red rose was the
accepted badge of Edmund Plantagenet, who was the second son of Henry
III., and of the first Duke of Lancaster, surnamed Crouchbacke. It was
also the cognisance of John of Gaunt, second Duke of Lancaster, in
virtue of his wife, who was godchild of Edmund Crouch-backe, and his
sole heir. (See above.)
The white rose,
says Sir John Mandeville, sprang from the unkindled brands heaped
around the virgin martyr at Bethlehem. (See Rose.)
The White Rose
(as a public-house sign) was not first adopted by the
Yorkists during the contest for the crown, as Shakespeare says. It was
an hereditary cognisance of the House of York, and had been borne by
them ever since the title was first created. It was adopted by the
Jacobins as an emblem of the Pretender, because his adherents were
obliged to abet him sub rosa (in secret).
No rose without a thorn.
“There is a crook in every lot” (Boston); “No joy without
alloy;” “There is a poison-drop in man's purest cup;” “Every path hath
its puddle” (Scotch).
“Il n'y a point de roses sans épines,” or “Point de rose sans
épine;” “Il n'est si gentil mois d'Avril qui n'ait son chapeau de
“Non v'è rosa senza spina;” “Ogni medaglia ha il suo reverso.” Latin: “Nihil est ab omni parte beatum” (Horace: 2 Odes, x.
27); “Curtæ nescio quid semper abest rei.” Under the rose (sub
rosa). In strict confidence. Cupid gave Harpocrates (the god of
silence) a rose, to bribe him not to betray the amours of Venus. Hence
the flower became the emblem of silence. It was for this reason
sculptured on the ceilings of banquet-rooms, to remind the guests that
what was spoken sub vino was not to be uttered sub divo. In 1526 it was placed over confessionals. The banquet-room ceiling at
Haddon Hall is decorated with roses. (French, parler sous la rose.
(in Christian art). The attribute of St. Dorothe'a, who carries
roses in a basket; of St. Casilda, St. Elizabeth of Portugal, and St.
Rose of Viterbo, who carry roses either in their hands or caps. St.
Rosalia, St. Angelus, St. Rose of Lima, St. Ascylus, St. Victoria,
etc., wear crowns of roses.
Rose elle a vecu ce que vivent les roses
L'espace d'un matin.
Malherbe: A Mme. du Perrier, sur la Morto de sa Fille.
Like other roses, thy sweet rose survived
While shone the morning sun, then drooped and died. B. C. B.
for Rose-noble. A gold coin worth 6s. 8d. struck in 1344,
under Edward III.; so called because it had a rose, the badge of the
Lancastrians and Yorkists.
De la pistole,
De la guinée, et de l'obole,
Du louis d'or, du ducaton,
De la rose, et du patagon.
Jacques Moreau, in Virgils Travesti.
Source: Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, E. Cobham Brewer, 1894