or Middle Ages begin with the Council of Chalcedon (451), and end with the revival of literature in the fifteenth century, according to the Rev. J. G. Dowling. According to Hallam, they begin from the downfall of the Western Empire, in 476, to the Italian expeditions of Charles VIII. of France (1494-1496).
Source: Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, E. Cobham Brewer, 1894
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