One of the seven “wonders of the world;” so called from Mausolus, King of Caria, to whom Artemisia (his wife) erected at Halicarnassos a splendid sepulchral monument B.C. 353. Parts of this sepulchre are now in the British Museum.
The chief mausoleums, besides the one referred to above, are: the mausoleum of Augustus; that of Hadrian, now called the castle of St. Angelo, at Rome; that erected in France to Henry II. by Catherinede Medicis; that of St. Peter the Martyr in the church of St. Eustatius, by G. Balduccio in the fourteenth century; and that erected to the memory of Louis XVI.
Source: Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, E. Cobham Brewer, 1894