Elizabeth I, queen of England, was excommunicated by Pope Pius V.
Samuel Colt patented the first revolving barrel multishot firearm.
Hiram Revels became the first black United States senator, taking over the term of Jefferson Davis.
J.P. Morgan formed U.S. Steel Corporation, the first billion-dollar corporation in the world.
Communists took control of the government in Czechoslovakia.
Cassius Clay (Muhammad Ali) became world heavyweight boxing champion for the first time by knocking out Sonny Liston in Miami Beach.
Tennessee Williams, American playwright, died.
President Ferdinand Marcos fled the Philippines; Corazon Aquino took over the office.
Violeta Chamorro was elected president of Nicaragua, a victory for opponents of the Sandinistas.