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Turkmenistan

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  1. Turkmenistan Main Page
  2. Issues with Oil Exportation
  3. First Contested Elections Lead to a Questionable Outcome, New Constitution

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Current government officials

Languages: Turkmen 72%; Russian 12%; Uzbek 9%, other 7%

Ethnicity/race: Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% (2003)

Religions: Islam 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%

Literacy rate: 98.9% (1999 est.)

Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2011 est.): $43.34 billion; per capita $7,800. Real growth rate: 14.7% (2011 est.). Inflation: 12%. Unemployment: 60% (2004 est.). Arable land: 4%. Agriculture: cotton, grain; livestock. Labor force: 2.3 million (2008 est.); agriculture 48.2%, industry 14%, services 37.8%. Industries: natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing. Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulfur, salt. Exports: $14.78 billion (2011 est.): gas, crude oil, petrochemicals, cotton fiber, textiles. Imports: $9.604 billion (2011 est.): machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs. Major trading partners: China, Turkey, Italy, Russia, UAE, Germany (2011).

Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 547,000 (2011); mobile cellular: 3.511 million (2011). Radio broadcast stations: broadcast media is government controlled and censored; 7 state-owned TV and 4 state-owned radio networks; satellite dishes and programming provide an alternative to the state-run media; officials sometimes limit access to satellite TV by removing satellite dishes (2007). Radios: 1.225 million (1997). Television broadcast stations: 3 (much programming relayed from Russia and Turkey) (1997). Televisions: 820,000 (1997). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 714 (2012) Internet users: 80,400 (2009).

Transportation: Railways: total: 2,980 km (2008). Highways: total: 58,592 km; paved: 47,577 km; unpaved: 11,015 km (2002 est.). Waterways: the Amu Darya is an important inland waterway. Ports and harbors: Turkmenbasy Airports: 26 (2012).

International disputes: Cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2005, but Caspian seabed delimitation remains stalled with Azerbaijan, Iran, and Kazakhstan due to Turkmenistan's indecision over how to allocate the sea's waters and seabed; bilateral talks continue with Azerbaijan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian.

Major sources and definitions

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