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Flag of Turkey
  1. Turkey Main Page
  2. A New Republic and President
  3. Oppression of Kurds and Kurdish Culture and Deadly Clashes
  4. Terrorism; Attempts to Improve the Government
  5. Improvements for Civil Rights and the Secular Movement
  6. Turkey Takes on Bigger Role on the World Stage
  7. 7.2 Magnitude Earthquake Hits Turkey
  8. Relations Between Syria and Turkey Deteriorate
  9. Eight Captives Freed by Kurdish Rebels
  10. Israel Formally Apologies to Turkey for 2010 Commando Raid
  11. Anti-Government Protests Call for Erdogan's Resignation

More Facts & Figures

Republic of Turkey

National name: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti

Current government officials

Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli, Azeri, Kabardian

Ethnicity/race: Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 18% (2008 est.)

Religions: Islam (mostly Sunni) 99.8%, other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)

Literacy rate: 87.4% (2004 est.)

Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2011 est.): $1.075 trillion; per capita $14,400. Real growth rate: 8.5%. Inflation: 6.5%. Unemployment: 9.8% (plus underemployment of 4.0%). Arable land: 29.81%. Agriculture: tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock. Labor force: 26.69 million (2011); note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad; agriculture 25.5%, industry 26.2%, services 48.4% (2010). Industries: textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper. Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulfur, iron ore, arable land, hydropower. Exports: $143.4 billion (2011 est.): apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment. Imports: $232.9 billion (2011 est.): machinery, chemicals, semifinished goods, fuels, transport equipment. Major trading partners: Germany, UK, Russia, U.S., Italy, France, Russia, China, Iraq, Iran (2011).

Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 15.211 million (2011); mobile cellular: 65.322 million (2011). Broadcast media: national public broadcaster Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) operates multiple TV and radio networks and stations; multiple privately-owned national television stations and up to 300 private regional and local television stations; multi-channel cable TV subscriptions are obtainable; more than 1,000 private radio broadcast stations (2009). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 7.093 million (2012). Internet users: 27.233 million (2009).

Transportation: Railways: total: 8,699 km (2010). Highways: total: 352,046 km; paved: 313,151 km; unpaved: 38,895 km (2008). Waterways: about 1,200 km (2010). Ports and harbors: Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Icel (Mersin), Samsun, Trabzon. Airports: 98 (2012).

International disputes: complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; in 2009, Swiss mediators facilitated an accord reestablishing diplomatic ties between Armenia and Turkey, but neither side has ratified the agreement and the rapprochement effort has faltered; Turkish authorities have complained that blasting from quarries in Armenia might be damaging the medieval ruins of Ani, on the other side of the Arpacay valley.

Major sources and definitions

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