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Russia

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Index
  1. Russia Main Page
  2. The Bolshevik Revolution
  3. Emergence of the USSR
  4. The Berlin Blockade and the Cold War
  5. Dissolution of the USSR
  6. Financial Crisis and Political Upheaval
  7. Putin's Rise to Power
  8. Attempts at Chechen Independence Fail
  9. A Shocking Hostage Situation, a Move Towards Climate Change, and Radiation Poison
  10. Crumbling Relations with the United States while Putin Retains Power
  11. Conflict with Georgia and the Demise of the Western Friendship
  12. String of Suicide Bombs Sparks Fear of a Crackdown by Putin
  13. Putin to Return to the Presidency
  14. 2011 Parliamentary Elections Spark Massive Protests
  15. Russia Blocks U.N. Action in Syria
  16. Unrest Surrounds the 2012 Presidential Election
  17. New Laws Passed against Political Activists, Pussy Riot Arrested
  18. Russia enters the World Trade Organization, Won't Renew Weapons Pact with United States
  19. Opposition Leader Says He Was Forced to Confess
  20. Anti-Gay Bill Ignites International Protests
  21. American Fugitive Seeks Asylum in Russia
  22. Russia Assists with Chemical Weapons Investigation in Syria
  23. Multiple Bombings Raise Fears for Olympics
  24. Russia Annexes Crimea, Experiences Economic Fallout Due to Sanctions
  25. Putin Signs Gas Accord with China, Begins Eurasian Union as Ukraine Fallout Continues

More Facts & Figures

National name: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya

Current government officials

Languages: Russian, many minority languages

Ethnicity/race: Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1% (2002)

Religions: Russian Orthodox 15%–20%, other Christian 2%, Islam 10%–15% (2006 est.; includes practicing worshippers only)

Literacy rate: 99.4% (2002 est.)

Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2011 est.): $2.380 trillion; per capita $16,700. Real growth rate: 4.3%. Inflation: 8.9%. Unemployment: 6.6%. Arable land: 7%. Agriculture: grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk. Labor force: 75.410 million; agriculture 4.6%, industry 39.1%, services 56.3% (2007 est.). Industries: complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries including radar, missile production, and advanced electronic components, shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts. Natural resources: wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber; note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitation of natural resources. Exports: $498.6 billion (2011 est.): petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, wood and wood products, metals, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures. Imports: $310.1 billion (2011 est.): machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines, meat, sugar, semifinished metal products. Major trading partners: Netherlands, Germany, Ukraine, Italy, China, U.S., Switzerland, Turkey, Japan, Kazakhstan, France (2004).

Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 45.959 million (2009); mobile cellular: 238 million (2009). Radio broadcast stations: AM 323, FM 1,500 est., shortwave 62 (2004). Radios: 61.5 million (1997). Television broadcast stations: 7,306 (1998). Televisions: 60.5 million (1997). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 13.758 million (2010). Internet users: 40.853 million (2009).

Transportation: Railways: total: 87,157 km (2006). Highways: total: 982,000 km paved: 776,000 km (includes 29,000 km of expressways) unpaved: 206,000 km note: includes public and departmental roads (2009). Waterways: Waterways 102,000 km (including 33,000 km with guaranteed depth) note: 72,000 km system in European Russia links Baltic Sea, White Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Azov, and Black Sea (2009). Ports and harbors: Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinsky, Arkhangel'sk, Astrakhan', De-Kastri, Indigirskiy, Kaliningrad, Kandalaksha, Kazan', Khabarovsk, Kholmsk, Krasnoyarsk, Lazarev, Mago, Mezen', Moscow, Murmansk, Nakhodka, Nevel'sk, Novorossiysk, Onega, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, Rostov, Shakhtersk, Saint Petersburg, Sochi, Taganrog, Tuapse, Uglegorsk, Vanino, Vladivostok, Volgograd, Vostochnyy, Vyborg. Airports: 1,213 (2012).

International disputes: China continues to seek a mutually acceptable solution to the disputed alluvial islands at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri rivers and a small island on the Argun River as part of the 2001 Treaty of Good Neighborliness, Friendship, and Cooperation; the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, and the Habomai group identified by the Russians as the “Southern Kurils” and by Japan as the “Northern Territories” occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Russia, claimed by Japan; boundary with Georgia has been largely delimited but not demarcated with several small, strategic segments remaining in dispute and OSCE observers monitoring volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge in the Akhmeti region and the Argun Gorge in Abkhazia; equidistant seabed treaties have been signed with Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan in the Caspian Sea but no resolution on dividing the water column among any of the littoral states; Russia and Norway dispute their maritime limits in the Barents Sea and Russia's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone; Russia continues to reject signing and ratifying the joint 1996 technical border agreement with Estonia; the Russian Parliament refuses to consider ratification of the boundary treaties with Estonia and Latvia, but in May 2003, ratified land and maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, which ratified the 1997 treaty in 1999, legalizing limits of former Soviet republic borders; discussions are still ongoing among Russia, Lithuania and the EU concerning a simplified transit document for residents of the Kaliningrad coastal exclave to transit through Lithuania to Russia; land delimitation with Ukraine is ratified, but maritime regime of the Sea of Azov and Kerch Strait is unresolved; delimitation with Kazakhstan is scheduled for completion in 2003; Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US in the Bering Sea.

Major sources and definitions

Rulers of Russia Since 1533

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