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  1. Peru Main Page
  2. A New Era of Government
  3. The Return of Alan GarcĂ­a
  4. An Ex-Officer Becomes President
  5. Government Refuses to Negotiate over Hostages
  6. Former President Denied Pardon

More Facts & Figures

National name: República del Perú

Current government officials

Languages: Spanish, Quéchua (both official); Aymara; many minor Amazonian languages

Ethnicity/race: Amerindian 45%, mestizo 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Religion: Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other%, unspecified or none 2.9% (2007 est.)

Literacy rate: 92.9% (2007 est.)

Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2011 est.): $301.5 billion; per capita $10,000. Real growth rate:6.9%. Inflation: 3.4%. Unemployment: 7.9% in metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment. Arable land: 2.88%. Agriculture: asparagus, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mango, barley, medicinal plants, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans, poultry, beef, dairy products, fish, guinea pigs. Labor force: 15.90 million (2011 est.); agriculture .7%, industry 23.8%, services 75.5% (2005). Industries: mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas; fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing. Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas. Exports: $46.27 billion (2011 est.): copper, gold, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, crude petroleum, petroleum products, natural gas, coffee, potatoes, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fish meal. Imports: $36.97 billion (2010 est.): petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, color TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines, medicines.. Major trading partners: U.S., China, Brazil, Ecuador, Argentina. (2010).

Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 3.160 million (2009); mobile cellular: 29.1 million (2009). Radio broadcast stations: in excess of 2,000 (2010). Television broadcast stations: 10 (2010). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 232,515 (2010). Internet users: 9.158 million (2009).

Transportation: Railways: total: 1,906 km (2010). Highways: total: 137,327 km (2007). Waterways: 8,808 km, 8,808 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca. Ports and harbors: Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas; note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries. Airports: 800 (2012).

International disputes:Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistant lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border.

Major sources and definitions

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