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New Zealand

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Facts & Figures

Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth II (1952)

Governor-General: Sir Jerry Mateparae (2011)

Prime Minister: John Key (2008)

Land area: 103,734 sq mi (268,671 sq km); total area: 103,737 sq mi (268,680 sq km)

Population (2010 est.): 4,252,277 (growth rate: 0.9%); birth rate: 13.8/1000; infant mortality rate: 4.8/1000; life expectancy: 80.5; density per sq km: 15

Capital (2003 est.): Wellington, 342,500 (metro. area), 165,100 (city proper)

Largest cities: Auckland, 369,300 (metro. area), 359,500 (city proper); Christchurch, 334,100

Monetary unit: New Zealand dollar

More Facts & Figures

Flag of New Zealand
Index
  1. New Zealand Main Page
  2. Instituting Social Welfare
  3. New Zealand Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

Geography

New Zealand, about 1,250 mi (2,012 km) southeast of Australia, consists of two main islands and a number of smaller outlying islands so scattered that they range from the tropical to the antarctic. The country is the size of Colorado. New Zealand's two main components are the North Island and the South Island, separated by Cook Strait. The North Island (44,281 sq mi; 115,777 sq km) is 515 mi (829 km) long and volcanic in its south-central part. This area contains many hot springs and beautiful geysers. South Island (58,093 sq mi; 151,215 sq km) has the Southern Alps along its west coast, with Mount Cook (12,316 ft; 3754 m) the highest point. Other inhabited islands include Stewart Island, the Chatham Islands, and Great Barrier Island. The largest of the uninhabited outlying islands are the Auckland Islands (234 sq mi; 606 sq km), Campbell Island (44 sq mi; 114 sq km), the Antipodes Islands (24 sq mi; 62 sq km), and the Kermadec Islands (13 sq mi; 34 sq km).

Government

Parliamentary democracy.

History

Maoris were the first inhabitants of New Zealand, arriving on the islands in about 1000. Maori oral history maintains that the Maoris came to the island in seven canoes from other parts of Polynesia. In 1642, New Zealand was explored by Abel Tasman, a Dutch navigator. British captain James Cook made three voyages to the islands, beginning in 1769. Britain formally annexed the islands in 1840.

The Treaty of Waitangi (Feb. 6, 1840) between the British and several Maori tribes promised to protect Maori land if the Maoris recognized British rule. Encroachment by British settlers was relentless, however, and skirmishes between the two groups intensified.

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