On Jan. 25, 1985, after a decade of
independence, the government became locked in a paralyzing war with
antigovernment guerrillas, the Mozambique National Resistance (MNR, or
Renamo), who were backed by the white minority government in South Africa.
The guerrilla movement weakened President Chissanó's attempts to
institute socialism, which he then decided to abandon in 1989. A new
constitution was drafted calling for three branches of government and
the granting civil liberties. A cease-fire agreement signed in Oct. 1992
between the government and the MNR ended 6 years of civil war.