More Facts & Figures
National name: Mongol Uls
Languages: Mongolian, 90%; also Turkic and Russian (1999)
Ethnicity/race: Mongol (predominantly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (of which Kazak is the largest group) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% (2000)
Religions: Buddhist Lamaist 50%, Islam 4%, Shamanism and Christian 4%, none 40% (2004)
National Holiday: Independence Day/Revolution Day, July 11
Literacy rate: 97.4% (2010 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2012 est.): $15.44 billion; per capita $5,500. Real growth rate: 12.3%. Inflation: 14.2%. Unemployment: 9%. Arable land: 0.39%. Agriculture: wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses. Labor force: 1.037 million; agriculture 33%, industry 10.6%, services 56.4%, (2011). Industries: construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing. Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate. Exports: $4.385 billion (2012 est.): copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals. Imports: $6.739 (2012 est.): machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea. Major trading partners: China, U.S., Canada, Russia, South Korea, Japan (2012).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 187,600 (2011); mobile cellular: 2.942 million (2011). Broadcast media: following a law passed in 2005, Mongolia's state-run radio and TV provider converted to a public service provider; also available are private radio and TV broadcasters, as well as multi-channel satellite and cable TV providers; more than 100 radio stations, including some 20 via repeaters for the public broadcaster; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2008). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 20,084 (2012). Internet users: 330,000 (2008).
Transportation: Railways: total: 1,908 km (2010). Roadways: total: 49,249 km; paved: 3,015 km; unpaved: 46,234 km (2010). Ports and harbors: 580 km (the only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol) (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, they are open from May to September) (2010). Airports: 44 (2012).
International disputes: none.
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