More Facts & Figures
National name: Mongol Uls
Languages: Mongolian, 90%; also Turkic and Russian (1999)
Ethnicity/race: Khalkh 81.9%, Kazak 3.8%, Dorvod 2.7%, Bayad 2.1%, Buryat-Bouriates 1.7%, Zakhchin 1.2%, Dariganga 1%, Uriankhai 1%, other 4.6% (2010 est.)
Religions: Buddhist 53%, Muslim 3%, Christian 2.2%, Shamanist 2.9%, other 0.4%, none 38.6% (2010 est.)
National Holiday: Independence Day/Revolution Day, July 11
Literacy rate: 97.4% (2011 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $17.03 billion; per capita $5,900. Real growth rate: 11.8%. Inflation: 8.2%. Unemployment: 9%. Arable land: 0.39%. Agriculture: wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses. Labor force: 1.037 million; agriculture 33%, industry 10.6%, services 56.4%, (2011). Industries: construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing. Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate. Exports: $4.294 billion (2013 est.): copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals. Imports: $5.696 (2013 est.): machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea. Major trading partners: China, Canada, U.S., Russia, South Korea, Japan (2012).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 176,700 (2012); mobile cellular: 3.375 million (2012). Broadcast media: following a law passed in 2005, Mongolia's state-run radio and TV provider converted to a public service provider; also available are private radio and TV broadcasters, as well as multi-channel satellite and cable TV providers; more than 100 radio stations, including some 20 via repeaters for the public broadcaster; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2008). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 20,084 (2012). Internet users: 330,000 (2008).
Transportation: Railways: total: 1,908 km (2010). Roadways: total: 49,249 km; paved: 4,800 km; unpaved: 44,449 km (2013). Ports and harbors: 580 km (the only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol) (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, they are open from May to September) (2010). Airports: 44 (2013).
International disputes: none.