|Facts & Figures|
Thongsing Thammavong (2010)
Land area: 89,112 sq mi (230,800 sq km);
total area: 91,428 sq mi (236,800 sq km)
Population (2014 est.): 6,803,699 (growth
rate: 1.59%); birth rate: 24.76/1000; infant mortality rate: 54.53/1000;
life expectancy: 63.51
Capital and largest city (2011 est.):
More Facts & Figures
A landlocked nation in Southeast Asia occupying
the northwest portion of the Indochinese peninsula, Laos is surrounded by
China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, and Burma. It is twice the size of
Pennsylvania. Laos is a mountainous country, especially in the north,
where peaks rise above 9,000 ft (2,800 m). Dense forests cover the
northern and eastern areas. The Mekong River, which forms the boundary
with Burma and Thailand, flows through the country for 932 mi (1,500 km)
of its course.
The Lao people migrated into Laos from southern
China from the 8th century onward. In the 14th century, the first Laotian
state was founded, the Lan Xang kingdom, which ruled Laos until it split
into three separate kingdoms in 1713. During the 18th century, the three
kingdoms came under Siamese (Thai) rule and, in 1893, became a French
protectorate. With its territory incorporated into Indochina.
A strong nationalist movement developed during World War II, but France
reestablished control in 1946 and made the king of Luang Prabang
constitutional monarch of all Laos. France granted semiautonomy in 1949
and then, spurred by the Viet Minh rebellion in Vietnam, full independence
within the French Union in 1950.
In 1951, Prince Souphanouvong organized the
Pathet Lao, a Communist independence movement, in North Vietnam. Viet Minh
and Pathet Lao forces invaded central Laos, resulting in civil war. By the
Geneva Agreements of 1954 and an armistice of 1955, two northern provinces
were given to the Pathet Lao; the rest went to the royal regime. Full
sovereignty was given to the kingdom by the Paris Agreements of Dec. 29,
1954. In 1957, Prince Souvanna Phouma, the royal prime minister, and
Pathet Lao leader Prince Souphanouvong, the prime minister's half-brother,
agreed to reestablishment of a unified government, with Pathet Lao
participation and integration of Pathet Lao forces into the royal army.
The agreement broke down in 1959, and armed conflict began anew.
In 1960, the struggle became a three-way fight as Gen.
Phoumi Nosavan, controlling the bulk of the royal army, set up in the
south a pro-Western revolutionary government headed by Prince Boun Oum.
General Phoumi took Vientiane in December, driving Souvanna Phouma into
exile in Cambodia. The Soviet bloc supported Souvanna Phouma. In 1961, a
cease-fire was arranged and the three princes agreed to a coalition
government headed by Souvanna Phouma.