British Exert Influence, Suppress Indians
Vasco da Gama, the Portuguese explorer, landed
in India in 1498, and for the next 100 years the Portuguese had a virtual
monopoly on trade with the subcontinent. Meanwhile, the English founded
the East India Company, which set up its first factory at Surat in 1612
and began expanding its influence, fighting the Indian rulers and the
French, Dutch, and Portuguese traders simultaneously.
Bombay, taken from the Portuguese, became the
seat of English rule in 1687. The defeat of French and Mogul armies by
Lord Clive in 1757 laid the foundation of the British Empire in India. The
East India Company continued to suppress native uprisings and extend
British rule until 1858, when the administration of India was formally
transferred to the British Crown following the Sepoy Mutiny of native
troops in 1857–1858.