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Flag of Egypt
  1. Egypt Main Page
  2. Egypt Becomes a Republic
  3. Tensions Between Egypt and Israel Erupt in the Six-Day War
  4. Egypt Begins Fighting Islamic Extremists
  5. Mubarak Resigns Under Intense Pressure from Protesters
  6. Several Milestones Signal Transition to Democracy
  7. Protesters Return to Tahrir Square
  8. Islamists Fare Well in Parliamentary Elections
  9. Mubarak Sentenced to Life in Prison
  10. Political Turmoil Complicates Presidential Election
  11. President Morsi Faces Early Tests
  12. Protests Threaten Morsi Government
  13. Morsi Deposed by Military After One Year in Office
  14. Military Brutally Cracks Down on Protesters
  15. Voters Approve New Constitution
Several Milestones Signal Transition to Democracy

After assuming control of the country, the military dissolved Parliament and suspended the Constitution. It then presented a roadmap for a six-month transition to civilian rule. Plans included drafting constitutional amendments, a referendum to vote on them, and elections. Opposition supporters continued to gather in Tahir Square to call for further reform. On March 3 Prime Minister Ahmed Shafiq resigned, giving in to the demands of protesters. He was replaced by Essam Sharaf, a former government minister and a supporter of the opposition. Another milestone was achieved on March 20, when 77.2% of voters approved a referendum on constitutional amendments that lays the groundwork for upcoming legislative and presidential elections. One of the amendments establishes presidential term limits. The amendments were put into effect on March 31, when the ruling military council introduced an interim constitution. The council also said it would cede legislative power after November's parliamentary elections and executive control after presidential elections, which are schedule for November. On April 13, Mubarak and his two sons, Gamal and Alaa, were taken into police custody to be questioned about corruption and abuse of power.

In May, prosecutors charged Mubarak with murder and attempting to murder protesters. He and his sons Alaa and Gamal were charged with corruption. All were ordered to stand trial. Mubarak's trial began on Aug. 3 in Cairo. He appeared in court lying in a hospital bed in a caged area of the courtroom.

Tensions flared between Israel and Egypt in August and September 2011, when militants attacked the Israeli resort town of Eilat, on the Egypt-Israel border. Eight Israelis were killed and 30 were wounded. Six Egyptian border guards were also killed in the shootings. Israeli authorities blamed the attacks on the Popular Resistance Committees, a group that has worked with Hamas, and said they believed the attackers crossed into Israel from Egypt. Egypt in turn blamed Israel for the deaths. Israel responded with several airstrikes on Gaza, killing the Popular Resistance Committees' commander among others. Egyptian officials denied that the attackers crossed through Hamas also denied Israel's accusations. The cross-border attacks threatened the decades of peace between Israel and Egypt. Meanwhile, Palestinian militants fired several rockets into Israel from Gaza, killing one civilian and wounding six others. Hamas, which controls Gaza, took credit for the rockets fired into Israel.

Next: Protesters Return to Tahrir Square
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