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Flag of Egypt
  1. Egypt Main Page
  2. Egypt Becomes a Republic
  3. Tensions Between Egypt and Israel Erupt in the Six-Day War
  4. Egypt Begins Fighting Islamic Extremists
  5. Mubarak Resigns Under Intense Pressure from Protesters
  6. Several Milestones Signal Transition to Democracy
  7. Protesters Return to Tahrir Square
  8. Islamists Fare Well in Parliamentary Elections; Political Turmoil Complicates Presidential Vote
  9. Mubarak Sentenced to Life in Prison
  10. Protests Threaten Morsi Government
  11. Morsi Deposed by Military After One Year in Office
  12. Military Brutally Cracks Down on Protesters
  13. Voters Approve New Constitution
  14. Mass Death Sentences Handed Down in Killing of Officer
  15. Voter Turnout Unexpectedly Low in Presidential Election

More Facts & Figures

National name: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah

Current government officials

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Ethnicity/race: Egyptian 98%, Berber, Nubian, Bedouin, and Beja 1%, Greek, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%

National Holiday: Revolution Day, July 23

Religions: Islam (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, Christian 1%, other 6%

Literacy rate: 71.4% (2011 est.)

Economic summary: GDP/PPP $515.4 billion (2011 est.); per capita $6,500. Real growth rate: 1.2%. Inflation: 13.3%. Unemployment: 12.2%. Arable land: 3%. Agriculture: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats. Labor force: 27.74 million (2011); agriculture 32%, industry 17%, services 51% (2001 est.). Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures. Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc. Exports: $27.96 billion (2011 est.): crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals. Imports: $57.41 billion (2011 est.): machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels. Major trading partners: Italy, U.S., Syria, Germany, Spain, France, China, UK, Saudi Arabia (2004).

Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 9.618 million (2011); mobile cellular: 70.661 million (2011). Radio broadcast stations: AM 42 (plus 15 repeater stations), FM 14, shortwave 3 (1999). Television broadcast stations: 98 (Sept. 1995). Internet hosts: 200,336 (2012). Internet users: 20.136 million (2011).

Transportation: Railways: total: 5,083 km (2011). Highways: total: 65,050 km; (2011 est.). Waterways: 3,500 km; note: includes Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m (2004). Ports and harbors: Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said, Suez, Zeit. Airports: 86 (2011).

International disputes: Egypt and Sudan retain claims to administer the two triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their military presence; Egypt is developing the Hala'ib Triangle north of the Treaty line; since the attack on Taba and other Egyptian resort towns on the Red Sea in October 2004, Egypt vigilantly monitors the Sinai and borders with Israel and the Gaza Strip; Egypt does not extend domestic asylum to some 70,000 persons who identify as Palestinians but who largely lack UNRWA assistance and, until recently, UNHCR recognition as refugees.

Major sources and definitions

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