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  1. Egypt Main Page
  2. Egypt Becomes a Republic
  3. Tensions Between Egypt and Israel Erupt in the Six-Day War
  4. Egypt Begins Fighting Islamic Extremists
  5. Mubarak Resigns Under Intense Pressure from Protesters
  6. Several Milestones Signal Transition to Democracy
  7. Protesters Return to Tahrir Square
  8. Islamists Fare Well in Parliamentary Elections; Political Turmoil Complicates Presidential Vote
  9. Mubarak Sentenced to Life in Prison
  10. Protests Threaten Morsi Government
  11. Morsi Deposed by Military After One Year in Office
  12. Military Brutally Cracks Down on Protesters
  13. Voters Approve New Constitution
  14. Mass Death Sentences Handed Down in Killing of Officer
  15. Voter Turnout Unexpectedly Low in Presidential Election
  16. Dangerous Jihadist Group Intensifies Attacks on Troops; Pledges Allegiance to ISIS
  17. Court Drops Charges Against Mubarak
  18. Obama Lifts Freeze on Military Aid
  19. Morsi Receives Sentences of Death and 20 Years in Prison
  20. Insurgent Attacks Increase
  21. Egypt Joins in Saudi-Led Fight Against Rebels in Yemen; Prime Minister, Cabinet Resign
Morsi Deposed by Military After One Year in Office

Massive anti-government protests took place on June 30, 2013, the first anniversary of Morsi's inauguration. As many as one million people took the streets in the planned demonstrations and called for the president to step down. Protesters ranged from the poor to anti-Islamists to the wealthy and middle class. Their complaints against Morsi were far-reaching: the dismal state of the economy (high inflation, poverty and unemployment), Morsi's installation of members of the Muslim Brotherhood into many positions of power, his failure to stem the sectarian divide between Sunnis, Shiites, and Christians, among other issues. The protests continued on July 1, and the military issued a statement saying they would step in if Morsi did not respond to the protesters in 48 hours. On July 4, the military deposed Morsi and suspended the constitution, saying the move was an attempt at "national reconciliation" rather than a coup. Morsi, however, called it a "complete military coup.” He was arrested and taken into custody and several members of his inner circle were placed under house arrest. Adli Mansour, the chief justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court, was sworn in as interim president and Mohamed ElBaradei, diplomat and opposition leader, became vice president. Mansour dismantled the Shura Council, the only functioning body of parliament. Thousands of Morsi supporters took to the streets of Cairo on July 5 in protests organized by the Muslim Brotherhood. Troops and police fired on protesters during morning prayers on July, killing more than 50 Morsi supporters and wounding more than 300. Reports in the news media said the attack was unprovoked. However, the military said soldiers were fired at first. About 650 members of the Muslim Brotherhood were arrested. The violence escalated the political crisis.

The day after the violence—the worst since the revolution began in 2011—the interim military government named Hazem el-Beblawy, a respected economist who supported the ouster of Mubarak, as prime minister and said a new constitution would be drafted and elections would be held within six months. The Muslim Brotherhood, however, rejected both the apppointment of Beblawy and the timeframe for a return to a civilian government. Most members of the opposition, ranging from liberals to conservative Islamists, called the timeframe unrealistic and poorly planned. On July 16, an interim government took office. It's composed mostly of left-leaning technocrats and three Christians and two women were given posts. Notably, there are no Islamists in Beblawy's cabinet. Gen. Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, who organized the coup, was named deputy prime minister and retained his post as head of defense. The Muslim Brotherhood and the Nour party, which had backed the coup, rejected the new government. The government faces the overwhelming tasks of shoring up the economy, shepharding the country back to civilian rule, writing a new constitution, and holding elections within six months.

Next: Military Brutally Cracks Down on Protesters
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