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China

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Index
  1. China Main Page
  2. War Losses Cause China to Sign Away Sovereignty
  3. People's Republic of China Is Established
  4. China Is Condemned for Poor Treatment of Tibetans
  5. President Nixon's Visit to China Establishes New Relations
  6. Student Demonstrators Are Killed at Tiananmen Square
  7. China Becomes an Economic Power, but Continues to Suppress Personal Liberties
  8. Natural Disasters Ravage China
  9. China Hosts a Successful Olympics
  10. Space Exploration, Government Reforms, and Military Crackdowns
  11. Tension Increases with Asian Neighbors Over Islands in 2012
  12. Transfer of Power
  13. Chinese Hackers Attack the New York Times
  14. Bo Xilai Sentenced to Life in Prison
  15. China Declares New Air Defense Zone
Student Demonstrators Are Killed at Tiananmen Square

The removal of Hu Yaobang as party chairman in Jan. 1987 signaled a hard-line resurgence within the party. Hu—who had become a hero to many reform-minded Chinese—was replaced by former premier Zhao Ziyang. With the death of Hu in April 1989, the ideological struggle spilled into the streets of the capital, as student demonstrators occupied Beijing's Tiananmen Square in May, calling for democratic reforms. Less than a month later, the demonstrations were crushed in a bloody crackdown as troops and tanks moved into the square and fired on protesters, killing several hundred.

In annual sessions of the rubber-stamp National People's Congress in 1992 and 1993, the government called for accelerating the drive for economic reform, but the sessions were widely seen as an effort to maintain China's moves toward a market economy while retaining political authoritarianism. At the session in 1993, Communist Party leader Jiang Zemin was elected president, while hard-liner Li Peng was reelected to another five-year term as prime minister. Since 1993, the Chinese economy has continued to grow rapidly.

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